The Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)’s goals, water is as the 6th goal, namely: “Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all”. It shows that clean water is one of human basic needs and a necessary for humans. It also mentioned in Constitution of Republic Indonesia 1945 (UUD 1945) that every natural resource is used to meet citizens needs,i.e. water.
Jakarta as the largest city in South East Asia with 9.7 million inhabitants in 2015 (BPS DKI Jakarta, 2015) also should provide the needs of water. On the other hand, the need for drinking water increases in lineto its population growth. Jakarta faces some problems in water issue regarding to its quality, quantity and continuity.
The source of raw water in Jakarta for drinking water treatment unit is 81% from Citarum River (Jatiluhur Dam), in West Java that flowed through West Tarum Canal since 1997, which used open canals ±70 km. The water divided into three drinking water treatment unit areas, namely: Buaran, Pulogadung and Pejompongan area that operated by two private companies (PT Lyonnaise Jaya (PALYJA) and PT Aetra Air Jakarta). They treated and distribute to fulfill inhabitant’s need.
In the other ways, based on some regulation the river should be bordered by inspection space. But, nowadays, river bank along West Tarum Canal becomes a residential settlement for urban people that already lived there more than 20 years with 54% citizens had low income, namely 0-Rp. 2,000,000 (Sidabutar, 2016). The function of the riverbank for their daily activities, i.e. residential, industrial, business area, small shop, public toilet, construction river’s well and etc. The increasing of inhabitants in the riverbank affects the river conditions. It could contaminate the water quality and affects the river become narrower.
By using Ministry of Environment’s Decree No 115/2003 regarding the Guidelines for Determination of Water Quality Status, the result of raw water quality 2011-2015 in eight points measurement from upstream to downstream is heavily-polluted category (STORET method).
In 2016, the water quality’s measurement for parameters pH, temperature, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD)) from Jatiluhur Dam to the intake drinking water unit. In thirteen points of sampling also, the results obtained the parameters DO, COD, and BOD are fluctuating and exceed the standard. In one point of measurement the number of Fecal coliform (as an indicator of water quality changes due to human and animal fecal contamination) also exceed the quality standard for first class functionbased on Government Regulation No. 82/2001 regarding Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Prevention (Sidabutar, 2016). The increasing number of Fecal coliform is caused by those people who still do domestic activities in the river.
The water along the riverbank is polluted by anthropogenic activities. Firstly, the activities are domestic activities (washing, cooking, and bathing) in the river. About 55% house that have toilet prefer to do bathing, washing, and latrine activities in the river than in their own toilet. Physically along the riverbank, each house has toilet in the body of the river.
Secondly, the discharging waste water from households into the river body. From observing, many house dispose domestic waste water directly flows into water bodies through PVC pipes, culverts and ditches.
The third is littering into the river. All houses produce any rubbish or garbage or solid waste, and they treat by just making a hole in the ground, sacks, plastic containers, and others. Most of the inhabitants collect and then burn the garbage near the river. It is possible to be carried over by water when it rains.
In addition, there are also other anthropogenic activities that support the degradation of water quality of the river, such as the construction of highway near to Buaran Area (intake of the Drinking Water Unit provided by AETRA). The other one, many people who have small-scale livestock, such as goats, chickens, and ducks placed at the riverbank, can also increase pollutants in the river.
Although river could do self-cleansing, but if the pollutants exceed the capacity, it could affect to the water quality. It makes the raw water quality of drinking water unit in Jakarta does not meet the standard base on Government Regulation No. 82/2001 about Water Quality Management and Water Pollution Prevention. The private company should do some complex treatment unit and need some chemical. It could be made the cost of treatment unit high, because it depends on the raw water quality. I supposed, it affects the rate of drinking/clean water is also high.
Some strategies to avoid water contamination from anthropogenic activities are keeping the upstream area, riverbank and intake drinking water treatment plant. We also should motivate inhabitants more responsible and government should do law enforcement about the raw water which met the standard. The policy should applied punish and reward.
The other technical strategies, such as keeping upstream wisely, doing in-situ domestic and industrial waste, having integrated solid waste management, making aeration in some segments of river, and regularly monitoring the conditions along riverbank.
Author: Noni Valeria